I don't think they actually post it anywhere online, but the Peace Corps wiki does have VERY old version of the guidelines up. That being said, I'm not sure I'd even look at them, as standards have changed, and they were posted a long time ago (as in years and years).
What Shanna said pretty much sums it up - a full physical, full dental exam with x-rays, plus. Plus everything else that you mentioned, even in passing (pretty much), on your HHF. Also, anything that comes up as abnormal or that the doctor indicates might need follow-up will probably need to be followed-up on.
It definitely can be challenging financially depending on your circumstances, as the PC only reimburses a VERY small amount.
Also as Shanna says, how smoothly it goes really depends on your own health history and, I would add, how well the doctors fill out the forms. Peace Corps can be very picky when it comes to not just WHAT is reported, but HOW its reported.